Biology

Biology, that wiki wiki would define as  a classical compound (modern coinage), with components derived from Ancient Greek βίος (bíos, “bio-, life”) +‎ -λογία (-logía, “-logy, branch of study, to speak”). The sibling cognates came into various European languages c. 1800 from a New Latin coinage biologia; the term *βίολογία (*bíología) did not exist in Ancient Greek. Since the advent of the scientific era, reanalyzable as a compound using the combining forms bio- +‎ -logy.

Biology, that wiki wiki would define as  a classical compound (modern coinage), with components derived from Ancient Greek βίος (bíos, “bio-, life”) +‎ -λογία (-logía, “-logy, branch of study, to speak”). The sibling cognates came into various European languages c. 1800 from a New Latin coinage biologia; the term *βίολογία (*bíología) did not exist in Ancient Greek. Since the advent of the scientific era, reanalyzable as a compound using the combining forms bio- +‎ -logy.

We start with Biology, the manual.

1 Unit 1. The Chemistry of Life

Chapter 1. The Study of Life

Chapter 2. The Chemical Foundation of Life

Chapter 3. Biological Macromolecules

2 Unit 2. The Cell

Chapter 4. Cell Structure

  • 4.1 Studying Cells
  • 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells
  • 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
  • 4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins
  • 4.5 The Cytoskeleton
  • 4.6 Connections between Cells and Cellular Activities

Chapter 5. Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes

  • 5.1 Components and Structure
  • 5.2 Passive Transport
  • 5.3 Active Transport
  • 5.4 Bulk Transport

Chapter 6. Metabolism

  • 6.1 Energy and Metabolism
  • 6.2 Potential, Kinetic, Free, and Activation Energy
  • 6.3 The Laws of Thermodynamics
  • 6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
  • 6.5 Enzymes

Chapter 7. Cellular Respiration

  • 7.1 Energy in Living Systems
  • 7.2 Glycolysis
  • 7.3 Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle
  • 7.4 Oxidative Phosphorylation
  • 7.5 Metabolism without Oxygen
  • 7.6 Connections of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Lipid Metabolic Pathways
  • 7.7 Regulation of Cellular Respiration

Chapter 8. Photosynthesis

  • 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
  • 8.2 The Light-Dependent Reactions of Photosynthesis
  • 8.3 Using Light Energy to Make Organic Molecules

Chapter 9. Cell Communication

  • 9.1 Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors
  • 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
  • 9.3 Response to the Signal
  • 9.4 Signaling in Single-Celled Organisms

Chapter 10. Cell Reproduction

  • 10.1 Cell Division
  • 10.2 The Cell Cycle
  • 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
  • 10.4 Cancer and the Cell Cycle
  • 10.5 Prokaryotic Cell Division

3 Unit 3. Genetics

Chapter 11. Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction

  • 11.1 The Process of Meiosis
  • 11.2 Sexual Reproduction

Chapter 12. Mendel’s Experiments and Heredity

  • 12.1 Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability
  • 12.2 Characteristics and Traits
  • 12.3 Laws of Inheritance

Chapter 13. Modern Understandings of Inheritance

  • 13.1 Chromosomal Theory and Genetic Linkage
  • 13.2 Chromosomal Basis of Inherited Disorders

Chapter 14. DNA Structure and Function

14.1 Historical Basis of Modern Understanding

14.2 DNA Structure and Sequencing

14.3 Basics of DNA Replication

14.4 DNA Replication in Prokaryotes

14.5 DNA Replication in Eukaryotes

14.6 DNA Repair

Chapter 15. Genes and Proteins

Introduction

15.1 The Genetic Code

15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription

15.3 Eukaryotic Transcription

15.4 RNA Processing in Eukaryotes

15.5 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis

Chapter 16. Gene Expression

Introduction

16.1 Regulation of Gene Expression

16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation

16.3 Eukaryotic Epigenetic Gene Regulation

16.4 Eukaryotic Transcription Gene Regulation

16.5 Eukaryotic Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation

16.6 Eukaryotic Translational and Post-translational Gene Regulation

16.7 Cancer and Gene Regulation

Chapter 17. Biotechnology and Genomics

Introduction

17.1 Biotechnology

17.2 Mapping Genomes

17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing

17.4 Applying Genomics

17.5 Genomics and Proteomics

4 Unit 4. Evolutionary Processes

Chapter 18. Evolution and the Origin of Species

Introduction

18.1 Understanding Evolution

18.2 Formation of New Species

18.3 Reconnection and Rates of Speciation

Chapter 19. The Evolution of Populations

Introduction

19.1 Population Evolution

19.2 Population Genetics

19.3 Adaptive Evolution

Chapter 20. Phylogenies and the History of Life

Introduction

20.1 Organizing Life on Earth

20.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships

20.3 Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree

5 Unit 5. Biological Diversity

Chapter 21. Viruses

Introduction

21.1 Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification

21.2 Virus Infections and Hosts

21.3 Prevention and Treatment of Viral Infections

21.4 Other Acellular Entities: Prions and Viroids

Chapter 22. Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea

Introduction

22.1 Prokaryotic Diversity

22.2 Structure of Prokaryotes

22.3 Prokaryotic Metabolism

22.4 Bacterial Diseases in Humans

22.5 Beneficial Prokaryotes

Chapter 23. Protists

Introduction

23.1 Eukaryotic Origins

23.2 Characteristics of Protists

23.3 Groups of Protists

23.4 Ecology of Protists

Chapter 24. Fungi

Introduction

24.1 Characteristics of Fungi

24.2 Classifications of Fungi

24.3 Ecology of Fungi

24.4 Fungal Parasites and Pathogens

24.5 Importance of Fungi in Human Life

Chapter 25. Seedless Plants

Introduction

25.1 Early Plant Life

25.2 Green Algae: Precursors of Land Plants

25.3 Bryophytes

25.4 Seedless Vascular Plants

Chapter 26. Seed Plants

Introduction

26.1 Evolution of Seed Plants

26.2 Gymnosperms

26.3 Angiosperms

26.4 The Role of Seed Plants

Chapter 27. Introduction to Animal Diversity

Introduction

27.1 Features of the Animal Kingdom

27.2 Features Used to Classify Animals

27.3 Animal Phylogeny

27.4 The Evolutionary History of the Animal Kingdom

Chapter 28. Invertebrates

Introduction

28.1 Phylum Porifera

28.2 Phylum Cnidaria

28.3 Superphylum Lophotrochozoa

28.4 Superphylum Ecdysozoa

28.5 Superphylum Deuterostomia

Chapter 29. Vertebrates

Introduction

29.1 Chordates

29.2 Fishes

29.3 Amphibians

29.4 Reptiles

29.5 Birds

29.6 Mammals

29.7 The Evolution of Primates

6 Unit 6. Plant Structure and Function

Chapter 30. Plant Form and Physiology

Introduction

30.1 The Plant Body

30.2 Stems

30.3 Roots

30.4 Leaves

30.5 Transport of Water and Solutes in Plants

30.6 Plant Sensory Systems and Responses

Chapter 31. Soil and Plant Nutrition

Introduction

31.1 Nutritional Requirements of Plants

31.2 The Soil

31.3 Nutritional Adaptations of Plants

Chapter 32. Plant Reproduction

Introduction

32.1 Reproductive Development and Structure

32.2 Pollination and Fertilization

32.3 Asexual Reproduction

7 Unit 7. Animal Structure and Function

Chapter 33. The Animal Body: Basic Form and Function

Introduction

33.1 Animal Form and Function

33.2 Animal Primary Tissues

33.3 Homeostasis

Chapter 34. Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System

Introduction

34.1 Digestive Systems

34.2 Nutrition and Energy Production

34.3 Digestive System Processes

34.4 Digestive System Regulation

Chapter 35. The Nervous System

Introduction

35.1 Neurons and Glial Cells

35.2 How Neurons Communicate

35.3 The Central Nervous System

35.4 The Peripheral Nervous System

35.5 Nervous System Disorders

Chapter 36. Sensory Systems

Introduction

36.1 Sensory Processes

36.2 Somatosensation

36.3 Taste and Smell

36.4 Hearing and Vestibular Sensation

36.5 Vision

Chapter 37. The Endocrine System

Introduction

37.1 Types of Hormones

37.2 How Hormones Work

37.3 Regulation of Body Processes

37.4 Regulation of Hormone Production

37.5 Endocrine Glands

Chapter 38. The Musculoskeletal System

Introduction

38.1 Types of Skeletal Systems

38.2 Bone

38.3 Joints and Skeletal Movement

38.4 Muscle Contraction and Locomotion

Chapter 39. The Respiratory System

Introduction

39.1 Systems of Gas Exchange

39.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces

39.3 Breathing

39.4 Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids

Chapter 40. The Circulatory System

Introduction

40.1 Overview of the Circulatory System

40.2 Components of the Blood

40.3 Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels

40.4 Blood Flow and Blood Pressure Regulation

Chapter 41. Osmotic Regulation and Excretion

Introduction

41.1 Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance

41.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs

41.3 Excretion Systems

41.4 Nitrogenous Wastes

41.5 Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions

Chapter 42. The Immune System

Introduction

42.1 Innate Immune Response

42.2 Adaptive Immune Response

42.3 Antibodies

42.4 Disruptions in the Immune System

Chapter 43. Animal Reproduction and Development

Introduction

43.1 Reproduction Methods

43.2 Fertilization

43.3 Human Reproductive Anatomy and Gametogenesis

43.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction

43.5 Human Pregnancy and Birth

43.6 Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development

43.7 Organogenesis and Vertebrate Formation

8 Unit 8. Ecology

Chapter 44. Ecology and the Biosphere

Introduction

44.1 The Scope of Ecology

44.2 Biogeography

44.3 Terrestrial Biomes

44.4 Aquatic Biomes

44.5 Climate and the Effects of Global Climate Change

Chapter 45. Population and Community Ecology

Introduction

45.1 Population Demography

45.2 Life Histories and Natural Selection

45.3 Environmental Limits to Population Growth

45.4 Population Dynamics and Regulation

45.5 Human Population Growth

45.6 Community Ecology

45.7 Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior

Chapter 46. Ecosystems

Introduction

46.1 Ecology of Ecosystems

46.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems

46.3 Biogeochemical Cycles

Chapter 47. Conservation Biology and Biodiversity

Introduction

47.1 The Biodiversity Crisis

47.2 The Importance of Biodiversity to Human Life

47.3 Threats to Biodiversity

47.4 Preserving Biodiversity

The Periodic Table of Elements

Geological Time

Measurements and the Metric System

 

 

References: 

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