1.2 The history of sociology

Since ancient times, people have been fascinated by the relationship between individuals and societies to which they belong. Many of the issues that are central to modern sociological scholarship were studied by ancient philosophers. Many of these earlier thinkers were motivated by their desire to describe an ideal society. In the thirteenth century, Ma Tuan-Lin, a Chinese historian, first recognized the social dynamics as a core component of historical development in his seminal encyclopedia, General Survey of the literary remains. The next century saw the emergence of the historian who some consider the world’s first sociologist Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406) of Tunisia. He wrote on many topics of interest today, laying the foundation for modern sociology and economics, including a theory of social conflict, a comparison of nomadic and sedentary lifestyle, a description of a study political economy and social cohesion connecting a tribe with its ability to power (Hannoum 2003). In the eighteenth century, philosophers of the Age of Enlightenment developed general principles that could be used to explain social life. Thinkers like John Locke, Voltaire, Immanuel Kant and Thomas Hobbes responded to what they considered writing about social issues they hoped would lead to social reform ills. In the early nineteenth century they saw dramatic changes with the Industrial Revolution, increased mobility and new types of employment. It was also a time of great social and political turmoil with the emergence of empires exposed to many people for the first time, societies and cultures different from theirs.

The term sociology was first coined in 1780 by the French essayist Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès (1748-1836) in an unpublished manuscript (Faure et al., 1999). In 1838, the term was re-invented by Auguste Comte (1798-1857). Comte originally studied to be an engineer, but later became a student of the social philosopher Claude Henri de Rouvroy Comte de Saint-Simon (1760-1825). They both thought that society could be studied using the same scientific methods used in the natural sciences. Comte believed in the potential of social scientists to work for the betterment of society. He said that once researchers identify the laws governing society, sociologists could address problems such as poor education and poverty (Abercrombie et al., 2000). Comte called the scientific study of positivism of social patterns. He described his philosophy in a series entitled The Course in Positive Philosophy (1830-1842) and A General View of Positivism (1848) books. He believed that the use of scientific methods to reveal the laws by which societies and individuals interact mark the beginning of a new “positivist” era of history. While the field and terminology have grown, sociologists still believe in the positive impact of their work. He believed that the use of scientific methods to reveal the laws by which societies and individuals interact mark the beginning of a new “positivist” era of history. While the field and terminology have grown, sociologists still believe in the positive impact of their work. He believed that the use of scientific methods to reveal the laws by which societies and individuals interact mark the beginning of a new “positivist” era of history. While the field and terminology have grown, sociologists still believe in the positive impact of their work.

Karl Marx

Karl Marx (1818-1883) was a German philosopher and economist. In 1848 he and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) were the co-authors of the Communist Manifesto. This book is one of the most influential political manuscripts 14 / 1.7 of the story. It also presents the theory of Marx society, which differed from that proposed by Comte. Marx rejected Comte’s positivism. He believed that societies grew and changed as a result of the struggles of different social classes of the means of production. By the time he was developing his theories, the Industrial Revolution and the rise of capitalism led to great disparities in wealth between factory owners and workers. Capitalism, an economic system characterized by private or corporate ownership of property and the means to produce them, He grew in many nations. Marx predicted that inequalities of capitalism would become so extreme that workers will eventually rebel. This would lead to the collapse of capitalism, which would be replaced by communism. Communism is an economic system under which no private or corporate ownership: everything is owned communally and distributed as needed. Marx believed that communism was a more equitable system than capitalism. While their economic predictions may not have been fulfilled in the time frame predicted Marx’s idea that social conflict leads to a change in society remains one of the main theories used in modern sociology. Marx predicted that inequalities of capitalism would become so extreme that workers will eventually rebel. This would lead to the collapse of capitalism, which would be replaced by communism. Communism is an economic system under which no private or corporate ownership: everything is owned communally and distributed as needed. Marx believed that communism was a more equitable system than capitalism. While their economic predictions may not have been fulfilled in the time frame predicted Marx’s idea that social conflict leads to a change in society remains one of the main theories used in modern sociology. Marx predicted that inequalities of capitalism would become so extreme that workers will eventually rebel. This would lead to the collapse of capitalism, which would be replaced by communism. Communism is an economic system under which no private or corporate ownership: everything is owned communally and distributed as needed. Marx believed that communism was a more equitable system than capitalism. While their economic predictions may not have been fulfilled in the time frame predicted Marx’s idea that social conflict leads to a change in society remains one of the main theories used in modern sociology. Communism is an economic system under which no private or corporate ownership: everything is owned communally and distributed as needed. Marx believed that communism was a more equitable system than capitalism. While their economic predictions may not have been fulfilled in the time frame predicted Marx’s idea that social conflict leads to a change in society remains one of the main theories used in modern sociology. Communism is an economic system under which no private or corporate ownership: everything is owned communally and distributed as needed. Marx believed that communism was a more equitable system than capitalism. While their economic predictions may not have been fulfilled in the time frame predicted Marx’s idea that social conflict leads to a change in society remains one of the main theories used in modern sociology.

In 1873, the English philosopher Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) published The Study of Sociology, the first book with the term “sociology” in the title. Spencer rejected much of Comte’s philosophy and the theory of the class struggle of Marx and support for communism. Instead, it favored a form of government that would allow market forces to control capitalism. His work influenced many ancient sociologists, including Émile Durkheim (1858-1917). Durkheim helped establish sociology as a formal academic discipline by establishing the first European department of sociology at the University of Bordeaux in 1895, publishing his Rules of Sociological Method in 1895. In another important work, Division of Labor in Society (1893), Durkheim explained his theory of how societies were transformed from a primitive state to a capitalist industrial society. According to Durkheim, people rise to their appropriate level in society based on merit. Durkheim believed thatsociologists could study “social facts” objective (Poggi 2000). He also believed that through such studies would be possible to determine whether a society was “healthy” or “pathological”.

He saw healthy societies as stable, while pathological societies experienced a breakdown in social norms between individuals and society. In 1897, Durkheim sought to demonstrate the effectiveness of its rules of social research when he published a work entitled Suicide. Durkheim examined suicide statistics in different police districts to investigate the differences between the Catholic and Protestant communities. He attributed the differences to the socio-religious forces rather than individual or psychological causes. The prominent sociologist Max Weber (1864-1920) established a department of sociology in Germany Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich in 1919. Weber wrote about many topics related to sociology, including political change in Russia and the social forces that affect factory workers. He is best known for his 1904 book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Weber’s theory that establishes in this book remains controversial. Some believe that Weber was arguing that the beliefs of many Protestants, especially Calvinists, led to the creation of capitalism. Others interpret simply as saying that the ideologies of capitalism and Protestantism are complementary. Weber also made an important contribution to the methodology of sociological research contribution. Along with other researchers like Wilhelm Dilthey (1833-1911) and Heinrich Rickert (1863-1936), Weber thought it was difficult, if not impossible, use standard scientific methods to accurately predict the behavior of groups as people expected. They argued that the influence of culture on human behavior should be taken into account.

This even applied the researchers themselves, who, in their opinion, should be aware of how their own cultural biases might influence their research. To deal with this problem, Weber and Dilthey introduced the concept of verstehen, a German word that means understanding in a profound way. When looking verstehen, outside observers of a social world-a whole culture or environment small- try to understand it from the point of view of an insider. In his book The Nature of Social Action (1922), Weber described sociology as an effort to “interpret the meaning of social action and thus give a causal explanation of how the action proceeds and the effects it produces.” He and other like-minded social scientists proposed a antipositivism philosophy according to which social scientists would struggle for subjectivity as they worked to represent the social, cultural norms and social values. This approach led to some research methods whose purpose was not to generalize or predict (traditional science), but systematically gain a deep understanding of social worlds. The different research approaches based on positivism or antipositivism often considered the basis of the differences today between quantitative and qualitative sociology sociology. Quantitative sociology uses statistical methods including surveys with a large number of participants. The researchers analyzed data using statistical techniques to see if they can uncover patterns of human behavior. Qualitative sociology seeks to understand human behavior learning about him through in-depth interviews, focus groups and analysis of content sources (such as books, magazines, journals and popular media).

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